Myanmar is a country in Southeast Asia with a population of over 54 million. The country is extremely biodiverse, and has some of the largest natural ecosystems that are fully intact in Southeast Asia. However, these areas are threatened by human activities like urbanization. In recent years, the government has taken action to help protect Myanmar’s ecosystems, including the creation of a set of legal requirements for environmental impact assessments (EIA).
In 2012, the government of Myanmar introduced the Environment Conservation Law, which included a draft of procedural laws for how environmental impact assessments (EIA) should be conducted. In 2015, Myanmar’s Ministry of Environmental Conservation and Forestry issued a formal procedure.
Chapter II explains the purpose of the law: to require anyone building factories or undertaking business projects that may have environmental impact must undertake an EIA that follows the requirements laid out in the Procedure.
“Pursuant to Section 21 of the Law and Articles 52, 53 and 55 of the Rules, all Projects and Project Expansions undertaken by any ministry, government department, organization, corporation, board, development committee, local government or authority, company, cooperative, institution, enterprise, firm, partnership or individual (and/or all Projects, field sites, factories and businesses including Expansions of such Projects, field sites, factories and businesses identified by the Ministry, which may cause impact on environmental quality and are required to get Prior Permission in accordance with Section 21 of the Law, and Article 62 of the Rules and Annex 1 ‘Categorization of Economic Activities for Assessment Purposes’) having the potential to cause Adverse Impacts, are required to undertake IEE or EIA or, subject to Articles 8, 9, 10 and 11, to develop an EMP, and to obtain an ECC in accordance with this Procedure.”Read the full text: Myanmar’s EIA Procedure
“EIA in Myanmar” – This infographic from the World Bank provides a timeline of the introduction of EIA regulations in Myanmar.
“Myanmar EIA Public Participation Guidelines” – The Vermont Law School provides an overview of how the 2015 Guideline came to fruition in its final form.