The Singapore Constitution does not contain any provisions on the environment. Neither does Singapore have a framework law on environmental protection and management. There is no mandatory environmental impact assessment (EIA) system laid out in legislation. The present scheme of environmental management in Singapore is scattered throughout numerous Acts and Regulations. EIAs are required on an ad hoc basis at the discretion of the ENV. There has not been much judicial pronouncement or comment on environmental matters - in fact, environmental litigation is almost unknown in Singapore. The environmental protection effort in Singapore is almost exclusively administrative in nature - the relative success of environmental management in Singapore is primarily due to the administrative efficiency of the ENV and other government agencies operating within a relatively tiny country. Also, stringent planning and zoning laws ensure optimal usage of land and proper siting of pollutive industries.